Vitamin-Producing Bacteria in Tempeh

Not just recognized for its distinct flavor and consistency, Tempe, a traditional Indonesian dish produced from soybeans is also well-known. Its remarkable nutritional composition is also recognized. The significance of the bacteria responsible for the production of vitamins during the tempeh cooking process is often overlooked by a large number of individuals. It depends on it for certain vitamins to form.

Bacteria are naturally present or added during the initial culture in the process of bacterial fermentation. The complex biochemical reactions that transform soybeans into tempeh involve these bacteria. The formation of crucial vitamins is a result of this. During the fermentation process of tempeh, an essential vitamin called cobalamin or vitamin B12 is synthesized. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacter freundii are examples of bacterial species. The enzymatic capabilities required for the synthesis of vitamin B12 are held by them. The production of red blood cells, nervous system functionality, and DNA synthesis all require the essential nutrient Vitamin B12. In addition to vitamin B12, bacteria present in tempeh fermentation also aid in the production of other B vitamins, including niacin (vitamin B3) and riboflavin (vitamin B2). The essential vitamins play significant functions in sustaining energy metabolism, preserving a healthy nervous system, promoting healthy skin and ensuring general wellness.

However, it is essential to consider the safety of tempe consumption as it involves bacteria such as K. pneumoniae and C. freundii. It is crucial to address the aspect of ensuring the safety of tempe consumption. Even though these bacteria may possess pathogenic variations, it holds significance to acknowledge. Tempe production utilizes specific strains that are selected for their beneficial attributes. They are not typically associated with any harmful impacts.

When cooking tempeh alongside these bacteria that generate vitamins, the outcome not only results in increased vitamin production but also elevates the overall nutritional conten. Tempeh fried with bacteria that produce vitamins not only helps in vitamin production but also boosts the nutritional content of the final product. It becomes a more nutritious choice for food. Protein breakdown by bacteria improves protein digestion. As a result, it facilitates better uptake of essential nutrients. This can enhance the presence of crucial amino acids, minerals, and other nutrients.

Tempeh’s nutritional properties, which comprise of vitamins produced by bacteria, provide numerous health advantages. Tempeh contains a more improved nutritional composition, which includes vitamins produced by bacteria like K. pneumoniae and C. freundii. This offers many health benefits. Supporting metabolic processes, contributing to a healthy immune system and enabling cellular function are among the important roles of these vitamins. Certain nutritional deficiencies can be prevented with their help too.

Assisted by bacteria like K. pneumoniae and C. freundii, the tempeh fermentation process provides it with a unique flavor and consistency while also aiding in the synthesis of crucial vitamins. Tempeh’s nutritional value is improved by the synthesis of B vitamins such as Vitamin B12, niacin, riboflavin, and others during fermentation. A diverse range of health advantages is also provided by them. We can relish the different tastes of this appetizing Indonesian classic dish by frequently consuming tempeh. Moreover, we can obtain its nutritional advantages.



Keuth, S., & Bisping, B. (1993). Formation of vitamins by pure cultures of tempe moulds and bacteria during the tempe solid substrate fermentation. The Journal of applied bacteriology, 75(5), 427–434.

Keuth, S & Bisping, Bernward. (1994). Vitamin B12 production by Citrobacter freundii or Klebsiella pneumoniae during tempeh fermentation and proof of enterotoxin absence by PCR. Applied and environmental microbiology. 60. 1495-9. 10.1128/AEM.60.5.1495-1499.1994. 

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